These tribes are diverse and are spread evenly throughout the country. Although the divide between the Nilotic peoples and the Bantu peoples is evident, with most Nilotic tribes like the Acholi and the Langi found in the northern part of the country while the Bantu tribes like the Baganda are found mostly in the south of the country.
Tribal music in Uganda, like in most African regions, is mainly functional. This means that most music and music activities usually have specific functions related to specific festivities like marriage, initiationroyal festivals, harvests and the like.
The music is performed by skilled tribesmen who are good at various instruments and well versed with the stylistic elements of the music of their tribe.
Most music is geared for dancing in the community, hence most tribes have specific dances associated with their music. Call and response style of singing is common and is the many ways vital information is passed on to the listeners. Baganda music The Baganda are found in the central region of Uganda and are the largest and most influential ethnic group in the country.
The Kingdom of Buganda is the longest existing monarchy in the country. The kingdom is ruled by a king, known as a Kabaka. The kabaka has traditionally been the main patron of the music of Buganda. Musical instruments include various forms of drums, making percussion an integral part of the music. The massive and sacred royal drums are just one of the many drum types.
The ngalabi is another common drum. It is a long round shaped drum with a high pitched sound used in synchronization of both instruments and dances.
The drums are used in unison with various other melodic musical instruments ranging from chordophones like the ennanga harp and the entongoli lyre, lamellophones, aerophones and idiophones and the locally made fiddle called kadingidi. The locally made xylophone, called amadinda, is one of the largest in sub saharan Africa.
The Baganda have a variety of vibrant dances that go along with the elaborate instrumentation. The bakisimba dance is the most common and most performed. There are others like nankasa and the amaggunju. The amaggunju is an exclusive dance developed in the palace for the Kabaka.
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The traditional music to-date is still held dear by many people within the region and is promoted and protected by the monarchy and tribal loyalists. Other tribes The Basoga are a tribe found in the eastern part of the country and bear many similarities with the Baganda. Their culture, language and music is similar to the baganda. They also have a similar xylophone, called "embaire", that plays a vital role and is principally used in the busoga court.
The compository principles of embaire music are similar to those of the amadinda music of buganda. The basoga employ procession style elements in their dances, with females taking a lead role. Vigorous gyrating of the hips and waist is the most common way of dancing. The Bagisu are also found in the eastern part of the country and their music, called "kadodi", is one of the most common traditional music styles and is constantly used in festivities around the country even by peoples of different tribes.
This is mostly because of its dance oriented nature. It employs very enjoyable percussion styles that encourage "wild" dancing. The music is mainly used in circumcision ceremonies, where young boys are initiated into manhood. Circumcision is called "imbalu". Other dances of the bagisu include a dance called "mabega" which involves vigorous shaking of the shoulders. In the west of the country, the Banyankore are the largest tribe.
Their music is more graceful when compared to other tribes and involves slow and simplistic percussion. The dancing style involves jumping and gesturing of the arms and is timed to perfection so as to coincide with the drumming. In the west also are the Banyoro and Batoro who employ a music style called "runyege" that involves clangers attached to the feet of male dancers who dance alongside female compatriots in a particular manner so as to create music with their legs.
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In the northern part of the country, various tribes like the Acholi and the Langi have their own styles of music. The "okeme", which is a thumb piano, is popular in this region since having been brought in the early 20th century by Congolese porters.
Locally made papyrus flutes are also common. Vocals are delivered in a group by various singers, most times male.
Constant stomping and jumping, alongside shaking of the head and neck, are common features of dance from this part of the country. The above are just some examples of the various tribes and ethnic groups in Uganda with their associated styles of music and dance. There are many more tribes although their music has not been well studied and documented. Popular Music Due to Uganda's turbulent political past, there was never enough time for there to be a thriving pop music industry until relative peace was restored in the late 80's.
Jimmy Katumba and his music group the Ebonies were also popular at this time, especially towards the 90's. They imported the Ragga music culture into Uganda and although they faced stiff competition from other African music styles and musicians at the time, in particular Soukous from Congo and Kwaito from South Africa, they managed to form the foundation of the pop music industry.
But it was not until the 21st century when musicians like Chameleone emerged that a pop music scene really began to emerge.
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Today, musicians like Iryn Namubiru and Jamal are just a few of the many pop musicians in a thriving and vibrant pop music scene. Kadongo Kamu Main article: Kadongo Kamu Kadongo Kamu was the first style of popular music to emerge out of traditional music in Uganda. The word "kadongo kamu" is a term in the Luganda language that means "one guitar". The music is given this name because of the role played by the bass guitarwhich most times is the solo instrument used in creation of the music.
Perhaps the first well known artist of the genre was Fred Masagazi in the 60's. Masagazi is considered by many the God father of kadongo kamu.
His brand of educative singing won him many fans and he is one of the few musicians who was involved with Uganda's independence in Elly Wamala was another of the founders. They were followed by a number of musicians who kept true to the style and sound of the music.
Herman Basudde was a very popular kadongo kamu musician in the 80's and 90's. So was Bernard Kabanda. Dan Mugula is one of the few surviving pioneers of the genre. Fred Sebatta and Paul Kafeero made their mark in the 90's.
Today, the genre is marginalized in favor of more recent styles of music. But because the music is loved by cultural loyalists in the buganda region, it is certain that there will always be an audience for kadongo kamu.
Kidandali Kidandali is a music genre that currently is arguably the most popular genre of music in Uganda. It must be noted though that the term "kidandali" is not universally agreed on as the name of this genre with some sources preferring the term "Band Music".
Rwanda Kenya -- History Kenya contains sites of fossil finds that are significant to the study of man's evolution, early development and history. In the western part of the country, deposits have been found dating back over 20 million years. These have yielded remains of anthropoid creatures that some archaeologists have conjectured may play a critical role in human ancestry.
The western region has also yielded other primate fossils dating back about 12 to 14 million years from a creature believed to have direct connection to the hominid family. From the Lake Rudolf area, 2.
Other bones uncovered in the late s and early s have been tentatively attributed to the genus Homo, from which modern man descends. Less is known about how long the present species of man has inhabited Kenya. Scattered remains from what may be a stone industry have been uncovered dating to about 16, B. Archaeological evidence indicates that people have occupied the area's lake-shores continuously from about 8, B.
These people represent part of a geographically wide-spread culture that gained its food primarily by fishing and gathering aquatic animals and plants. At about the third millennium B. The newcomers apparently coexisted, at least initially, with the inhabitants living near the lakes. Skeletal finds also indicate that a third human group also inhabited the area of modern Kenya at about the same time. Such communities may have been absorbed by the Cushitic peoples.
Other hunters and gatherers are likely to have been the principal inhabitants of the forested parts of the Kenya Highlands and the wooded grasslands at lower elevations.
In the first millennium A. They are believed to be Bantu language speakers from the south and southwest. The largest of these groups in Kenya today are the Kikuyu and the Kamba.
Some of the coastal peoples, among them the Digo, Giriama and Pokomo, have affinities with the Bantu. Cushitic, Nilo-Hamatic and other peoples also settled in the region. The Nilotic peoples are also thought to have moved to this area from Sudan, and to have given rise to the Luo, among others.
The largest Nilo-Hamatic group today are the Kalenjin. Ancient Greek accounts record visits by Greek merchants and sailors to the Kenyan coast during the 4th century AD. Roman coins from that period have been found in the country, though the means of their arrival is unknown. Arab, Persian, Indian, Indonesian and Chinese traders followed. Large Arab settlements were soon established, especially in Mombasa and Malindi.
The intermingling of Arabs and indigenous inhabitants formed the Swahili culture and language. During the early period of recorded history, slaves and ivory were the main items of trade. Early in the 16th century, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama stopped at Mombasa on his way to India.
The Portuguese built Fort Jesus in Mombasa in ; this soon became the headquarters of Portuguese officials and the main port of call for Portuguese vessels, but the fort was captured by Omani Arabs in In the 18th century, the Arabs made several attempts to penetrate the interior of the region in efforts to take over control of the slave trade then dominated by the Kamba. These attempts were repelled; only in the beginning of the 19th century were the Arabs able to take over the internal slave trade.
One consequence of the Arab incursion was the consolidation of the politics of the Luo and the Luhya. When Europeans began to penetrate the area in the 19th century, the coastal areas were ruled by the Sultan of Zanzibar. In Krapf reached Mount Kenya. Britain and Germany competed for control of Maasailand, leading to their agreement to divide the hinterland between them.
Under the agreement, Britain took possession of the area north of the mouth of the Umba river, which is now located in modern Kenya and Uganda. The British Government gave the administration of the area to the Imperial British East Africa Company, which had been granted a royal charter to operate in East Africa. The administration of the country was taken over by the British Foreign Office in July,when it was declared a British protectorate.
The protectorate was administered from Zanzibar, the residence of the first Commissioner, Sir Arthur Harding. From the beginning, the indigenous peoples strongly resisted the imposition of foreign rule.