The oasis of Hotan is strategically located at the junction of the southern and most ancient branch of the Silk Road joining China and the West with one of the main routes from ancient India and Tibet to Central Asia and distant China.
It provided a convenient meeting place where not only goods, but technologies, philosophies, and religions were transmitted from one culture to another.
Tocharians lived in this region over years ago. Several of the Tarim mummies were found in the region. At Sampul, east of the city of Hotan, there is an extensive series of cemeteries scattered over an area about 1 kilometre 0.
The excavated graves have produced a number of fabrics of feltwoolsilk and cotton and even a fine bit of tapestry, the Sampul tapestryshowing the face of Caucasoid man which was made of threads of 24 shades of colour.
The tapestry had been cut up and fashioned into trousers worn by one of the deceased. An Anthropological study of 56 individuals showed a primarily Caucasoid population.
The main historical sources are to be found in the Chinese histories particularly detailed during the Han  and early Tang dynasties when China was interested in control of the Western Regionsthe accounts of several Chinese pilgrim monks a few Buddhist histories of Hotan that have survived in Classical Tibetan and a large number of documents in the Iranian Saka language and other languages discovered, for the most part, early this century at various sites in the Tarim Basin and from the hidden library at the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang.
Kingdom of Khotan The ancient Kingdom of Khotan was one of the earliest Buddhist states in the world and a cultural bridge across which Buddhist culture and learning were transmitted from India to China. The kingdom was independent but was intermittently under Chinese control during the Han and Tang Dynasty. The previous border of the British Indian Empire is shown in the two-toned purple and pink band. After the Tang dynasty, Khotan formed an alliance with the rulers of Dunhuang.
Khotan enjoyed close relations with the Buddhist centre at Dunhuang: Through the 10th century, Khotanese royal portraits were painted in association with an increasing number of deities in the caves.
Satuq's son, Musa, began to put pressure on Khotan in the midth century, and sometime before Yusuf Qadir Khan of Kashgar besieged and took the city. This conquest of Buddhist Khotan by the Muslim Turks—about which there are many colourful legends—marked another watershed in the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of the Tarim Basinand an end to local autonomy of this southern Tarim city state.
Halfway in the 10th century Khotan came under attack by the Qarakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Turkification and Islamification of the Tarim Basinthe Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around Later it fell to the Kara-Khitan Khanateafter which it was ruled by the Mongols.
The earliest known shoes are sagebrush bark sandals dating from approximately or BC, found in the Fort Rock Cave in the US state of Oregon in Archaeologists estimate that the leather shoe was made between and BC,  making it the oldest article of clothing discovered in Scandinavia. It is thought that shoes may have been used long before this, but because the materials used were highly perishable, it is difficult to find evidence of the earliest footwear.
This led archaeologists to deduce that wearing shoes resulted in less bone growth, resulting in shorter, thinner toes.
They were more commonly found in colder climates. These are tight-fitting, soft-soled shoes typically made out of leather or bison hides. Many moccasins were also decorated with various beads and other adornments. Moccasins were not designed to be waterproof, and in wet weather and warm summer months, most Native Americans went barefoot.
This practice dates back to pictures of them in ancient Egyptian murals from BC. One pair found in Europe was made of papyrus leaves and dated to be approximately 1, years old. They were also worn in Jerusalem during the first century of the Common Era. Ancient Egyptian sandals were made from papyrus and palm leaves. The Masai of Africa made them out of rawhide. In India they were made from wood.
In China and Japan, rice straw was used. The leaves of the sisal plant were used to make twine for sandals in South America while the natives of Mexico used the Yucca plant. The Egyptians and Hindus made some use of ornamental footwear, such as a soleless sandal known as a "Cleopatra",[ citation needed ] which did not provide any practical protection for the foot.
The ancient Greeks largely viewed footwear as self-indulgent, unaesthetic and unnecessary. Shoes were primarily worn in the theater, as a means of increasing stature, and many preferred to go barefoot.
The runners of Ancient Greece are also believed to have run barefoot. Pheidippidesthe first marathonerran from Athens to Sparta in less than 36 hours.
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Roman clothing was seen as a sign of power, and footwear was seen as a necessity of living in a civilized world, although the slaves and paupers usually went barefoot. This is a sandal with braided jute soles and a fabric upper portion, and often includes fabric laces that tie around the ankle. The term is French and comes from the esparto grass.
The shoe originated in the Catalonian region of Spain as early as the 13th century, and was commonly worn by peasants in the farming communities in the area.
Excavated from the archeological site of Walraversijdenear OstendBelgium Many medieval shoes were made using the turnshoe method of construction, in which the upper was turned flesh side out, and was lasted onto the sole and joined to the edge by a seam.
The shoe was then turned inside-out so that the grain was outside. Some shoes were developed with toggled flaps or drawstrings to tighten the leather around the foot for a better fit.
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Surviving medieval turnshoes often fit the foot closely, with the right and left shoe being mirror images. By the 15th Century, pattens became popular by both men and women in Europe. These are commonly seen as the predecessor of the modern high-heeled shoe while the poor and lower classes in Europe, as well as slaves in the New World, were barefoot.
The style is characterized by the point of the shoe, known as the "polaine", which often was supported by a whalebone tied to the knee to prevent the point getting in the way while walking. These shoes became popular in Venice and throughout Europe, as a status symbol revealing wealth and social standing.
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During the 16th century, royalty started wearing high-heeled shoes to make them look taller or larger than life, such as Catherine de Medici or Mary I of England. Byeven men wore them, and a person with authority or wealth was often referred to as, "well-heeled".
Since the 17th century, most leather shoes have used a sewn-on sole. This remains the standard for finer-quality dress shoes today. Until aroundwelted rand shoes were commonly made without differentiation for the left or right foot. Such shoes are now referred to as "straights". Shoemaking became more commercialized in the midth century, as it expanded as a cottage industry.
Large warehouses began to stock footwear, made by many small manufacturers from the area.
Until the 19th century, shoemaking was a traditional handicraft, but by the century's end, the process had been almost completely mechanized, with production occurring in large factories.
Despite the obvious economic gains of mass-productionthe factory system produced shoes without the individual differentiation that the traditional shoemaker was able to provide. The first steps towards mechanisation were taken during the Napoleonic Wars by the engineer, Marc Brunel. He developed machinery for the mass-production of boots for the soldiers of the British Army. In he devised a scheme for making nailed-boot-making machinery that automatically fastened soles to uppers by means of metallic pins or nails.
In the same year, the use of screws and staples was patented by Richard Woodman. Brunel's system was described by Sir Richard Phillips as a visitor to his factory in Battersea as follows: By the late 19th century, the shoemaking industry had migrated to the factory and was increasingly mechanized. Pictured, the bottoming room of the B. Every step in it is effected by the most elegant and precise machinery; while, as each operation is performed by one hand, so each shoe passes through twenty-five hands, who complete from the hide, as supplied by the currier, a hundred pairs of strong and well-finished shoes per day.
All the details are performed by the ingenious application of the mechanic powers; and all the parts are characterised by precision, uniformity, and accuracy. As each man performs but one step in the process, which implies no knowledge of what is done by those who go before or follow him, so the persons employed are not shoemakers, but wounded soldiers, who are able to learn their respective duties in a few hours.
The contract at which these shoes are delivered to Government is 6s.
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As a consequence, Brunel's system was no longer profitable and it soon ceased business. His machine used an iron plate to push iron rivets into the sole. The process greatly increased the speed and efficiency of production. He also introduced the use of steam-powered rolling-machines for hardening leather and cutting-machines, in the mids. The sewing machine was introduced inand provided an alternative method for the mechanization of shoemaking. By the late s, the industry was beginning to shift towards the modern factory, mainly in the US and areas of England.
A shoe stitching machine was invented by the American Lyman Blake in and perfected by Entering into partnership with McKay, his device became known as the McKay stitching machine and was quickly adopted by manufacturers throughout New England. By the s, the process of mechanisation was largely complete. Since the midth Century, advances in rubber, plastics, synthetic cloth, and industrial adhesives have allowed manufacturers to create shoes that stray considerably from traditional crafting techniques.
Leather, which had been the primary material in earlier styles, has remained standard in expensive dress shoes, but athletic shoes often have little or no real leather. Soles, which were once laboriously hand-stitched on, are now more often machine stitched or simply glued on. Many of these newer materials, such as rubber and plastics, have made shoes less biodegradable. It is estimated that most mass-produced shoes require years to degrade in a landfill.
However, many manufacturers in Europe dominate the higher-priced, higher value-added end of the market. This story tells about an old woman living in a shoe with a lot of children. InMahlon Hainesa shoe salesman in Hallam, Pennsylvaniabuilt an actual house shaped like a work boot as a form of advertisement.
The Haines Shoe House was rented to newlyweds and the elderly until his death in Since then, it has served as an ice cream parlor, a bed and breakfastand a museum. It still stands today and is a popular roadside attraction. In the movie adaption of the children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oza pair of red ruby slippers play a key role in the plot. The comedy The Man with One Red Shoe features an eccentric man wearing one normal business shoe and one red shoe that becomes central to the plot.
Sports shoes in Hong Kong Athletic sneaker collection has also existed as a part of urban subculture in the United States for several decades. A contributor to the growth of sneaker collecting is the continued worldwide popularity of the Air Jordan line of sneakers designed by Nike for Basketball star Michael Jordan.
In the Holy Bible 's Old Testamentthe shoe is used to symbolize something that is worthless or of little value. In the New Testamentthe act of removing one's shoes symbolizes servitude.
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples regarded the act of removing their shoes as a mark of reverence when approaching a sacred person or place. Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest [is] holy ground Exodus 3: Salt Crystal Shoes, art installation at the Dead Sea by Israeli artist Sigalit Landau The removal of the shoe also symbolizes the act of giving up a legal right.
In Hebrew custom, the widow removed the shoe of her late husband's brother to symbolize that he had abandoned his duty. In Arab custom, the removal of one's shoe also symbolized the dissolution of marriage.
As such, shoes are forbidden in mosquesand it is also considered unmannerly to cross the legs and display the soles of one's shoes to someone when talking to them. This insult was demonstrated in Iraqfirst when Saddam Hussein 's statue was toppled inIraqis gathered around it and struck the statue with their shoes. Bush had a shoe thrown at him by a journalist as a statement against the war that was brought to Iraq and the lives that it has cost.
In Greek culture, empty shoes are the equivalent of the American funeral wreath. For example, empty shoes placed outside of a Greek home would tell others that the family's son has died in battle. They were ordered to take off their shoes, and were shot at the edge of the water so that their bodies fell into the river and were carried away. The memorial represents their shoes left behind on the bank. Construction Diagram of a typical dress shoe. Note that the area labeled as the "Lace guard" is sometimes considered part of the quarter and sometimes part of the vamp.
The basic anatomy of a shoe is recognizable, regardless of the specific style of footwear. A shoemaker making turnshoes at the Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum All shoes have a sole, which is the bottom of a shoe, in contact with the ground. Soles can be made from a variety of materials, although most modern shoes have soles made from natural rubberpolyurethaneor polyvinyl chloride PVC compounds.
When various layers are used, soles may consist of an insole, midsole, and an outsole.
The purpose of insole is to attach to the lasting margin of the upper, which is wrapped around the last during the closing of the shoe during the lasting operation. Insoles are usually made of cellulosic paper board or synthetic non woven insole board.
Many shoes have removable and replaceable footbeds. Extra cushioning is often added for comfort to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe or health reasons to help deal with differences in the natural shape of the foot or positioning of the foot during standing or walking. Dress shoes often have leather or resin rubber outsoles; casual or work-oriented shoes have outsoles made of natural rubber or a synthetic material like polyurethane.
The outsole may comprise a single piece, or may be an assembly of separate pieces, often of different materials. On some shoes, the heel of the sole has a rubber plate for durability and traction, while the front is leather for style. Specialized shoes will often have modifications on this design: Some types of shoes, like running shoes, have additional material for shock absorption, usually beneath the heel of the foot, where one puts the most pressure down. Some shoes may not have a midsole at all.
Its function is to support the heel of the foot. They are often made of the same material as the sole of the shoe. This part can be high for fashion or to make the person look taller, or flat for a more practical and comfortable use.
This piece of design is intended to alleviate the problem of the points catching the bottom of trousers and was first observed in the s.
The shoe heel is used to improve the balance of the shoe, increase the height of the wearer, alter posture or other decorative purposes. Sometimes raised, the high heel is common to a form of shoe often worn by women, but sometimes by men too. See also stiletto heel. The upper helps hold the shoe onto the foot. In the simplest cases, such as sandals or flip-flops, this may be nothing more than a few straps for holding the sole in place. Closed footwear, such as boots, trainers and most men's shoes, will have a more complex upper.
This part is often decorated or is made in a certain style to look attractive. The upper is connected to the sole by a strip of leather, rubber, or plastic that is stitched between it and the sole, known as a welt.