The redivision of the continent begun by the American Revolution had been intensified by rivalry in the fur trade.
The French fur trade of Montreal had been taken over by British American traders who conducted the trade with the aid of French… Character of the city Montreal is a city with considerable French colonial history dating back to the 16th century.
It began as a missionary settlement but soon became a fur-trading centre, a role that was enhanced after the conquest of New France by the British in Lawrence proved to be a major advantage in its development as a transportation, manufacturing, and financial centre.
Schwartz's, Montreal Le Plateau MontRoyal Menu, Prices & Restaurant Reviews TripAdvisor
From the time of the confederation of CanadaMontreal was the largest metropolitan centre in the country until it was overtaken by Toronto in the s. French Canadians are the majority population in Montreal, which is often said to be the second largest French-speaking city in the world after Paristhough the accuracy of that statement is sometimes questioned principally by those who make the same claim for Kinshasa and Algiers.
Montreal remains a city of great charm, vivacity, and gaiety, as well as one of unquestioned modernity. Bonsecours MarketBonsecours Market, Montreal. Lawrence was a large sea Champlain Sea that eventually drained, leaving the fertile sedimentary St.
Lawrence River valley, which is shaped like a funnel—narrow at the Quebec city end and considerably wider upriver at Montreal. Those physical conditions eventually translated into a settlement pattern with more farms and people in and around Montreal than around Quebec city. Old PortOld Port section of Montreal. Lawrence River, draining the Great Lakesprovided a natural waterway and transportation corridor to the heart of the North American continent.
Its location at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers made it an important staging centre for a fur trade to the west and north as far as the Hudson Bay. While the Lachine Rapids on the St.
Lawrence just west of the city prohibited some larger vessels from continuing upriver, fur traders were nevertheless able to follow the river to the Great Lakes and, via Lake Michiganon to the largest river system in North America—the Mississippi - Missouri rivers. The Lachine Canal National Historic Site preserves the path of the ship canal at the southern end of Montreal Island that was used to bypass the rapids until the seaway was constructed.
The city is built around and up Mont Royal Mount Royalwhich rises to feet metres. Map of Montreal c. Climate Montreal has a continental climate, but its proximity to the Great Lakes, in combination with prevailing westerly winds, modifies temperatures for both winter and summer.
The prevailing winds and Great Lakes also influence precipitationwhich is relatively even year-round amounting to approximately 41 inches 1, mm annually. In winter, though, that precipitation is mainly in the form of snow, and totals often exceed 7 feet about 2.
A memorable ice storm in took a number of lives, made travel on roads impossible, and caused major damage to hydroelectric transmission lines and trees. City layout The rapid economic growth of Montreal following World War II was accompanied by administrators intent upon grand designs.
Expo 67 Man and His World involved massive construction and was located on two islands in the St.
Montreal Location, History, Sites, & Facts
City HallMontreal City Hall. While the Place Ville-Marie remained an important landmark, taller buildings were constructed at the end of the s. While visitors often note the European flavour of Montreal, downtown Montreal is definitely North American in style. Particularly popular is the Jean-Talon market, which hosts hundreds of vendors in summer months. Offering an abundance of haute-cuisine restaurants and art galleries, Old Montreal is popular with tourists and locals alike.
Northwest of Mont Royal is Outremont, which merged with Montreal City in and has long been home to the Francophone elite. At the beginning of the 21st century, Outremont was also home to the second largest Hasidic Jewish community in North America after the one in New York City.
Also noteworthy is the monumental St. The renaissance-style oratory is easily recognizable with its large white dome surmounted by a cross that marks the highest point in Montreal feet [ metres] above sea level. It is a common ritual for pious pilgrims to climb its 99 front stairs on their knees. The growth of Montreal as a manufacturing centre required plenty of labour; in answer, some came from Europe, but most of those who sought work were French Canadians, which eventually led to conflict.
The owners and controllers of the Montreal economy were, for the most part, Anglophones; French Canadians, the dominant population from the mids, worked in the factories. That divide at the workplace was mirrored in a spatial pattern that developed whereby Boulevard Saint-Laurent St.
Lawrence Street became a linguistic partition, with Francophones living to the east of it and English speakers to the west. The economic boom following World War II attracted immigrants from Europe, Asia, Africa, and elsewhere in the Americas, transforming Montreal into a diverse multicultural city. Despite that increase in immigrant population, French speakers make up about half of the population in the city proper and some two-thirds of the population on the island.
Religious affiliations in Montreal generally follow ethnic traditions. Roman Catholicism is by far the dominant faith, although active religious practice among Roman Catholics has dramatically diminished since the midth century.
Economy Manufacturing Transportation improvements were vital in attracting manufacturing industries to Montreal. With canal construction and advancements, oceangoing vessels were able to reach the city, and, with rail developments, by the s Montreal had become a hub for transcontinental and international movement of goods.
As a consequence, manufacturing industries lined the Lachine Canal, producing cotton goods, clothing, textiles, shoes, food, and beverages as well as ships, metal goods, and petroleum products. By the midth century the general shift from rail to road transportation of goods was matched by the flight of many industries away from Montreal to suburbs.
The restructuring of industry resulted in the loss of manufacturing jobs, but, over time, new often high-tech industries emerged. Other industries include food processingbeverage making, engineering, software development, and the manufacture of telecommunications equipment and pharmaceuticals, along with printing and publishing.
Indeed, the operational headquarters of the Bank of Montreal relocated in Toronto, thus assisting the latter city in becoming the financial capital of Canada. Transportation The series of rapids on the St. Lawrence River west of Montreal long served as a barrier to oceangoing vessels accessing the Great Lakes. However, that impediment was overcome in with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, a joint venture of the U. The seaway, along with the introduction of icebreakers in winter, not only provided much-greater access to the centre of the North American continent but also benefited other Quebec port cities, such as Baie Comeau and Quebec city, as ships could now bypass Montreal in the transatlantic trade.
In response, Montreal invested in container facilities and became a leader in that vital shipping service. The s also saw the proliferation of automobiles and freeways, and in the Metropolitan Boulevard, an east-west throughway that spanned the island, was opened.
In the early 21st century Montreal was afflicted by considerable traffic congestion that may have been at least partly a long-term consequence of a cost-driven moratorium on freeway construction from to Montreal is still a railway centre, and, while much of the rail traffic is dedicated to moving goods, there is also regular passenger service to other cities such as Toronto and the Ottawa-Gatineau area.
Montreal is served by two international airports both under the same authority: Hussein Abdallah Public transportation in Montreal dates from the intermittent use of horse-drawn omnibuses perhaps as early as the late s. During the winter in the s, sleighs replaced the railcar service that was inaugurated in By the entire system had been electrified and the last horsecars withdrawn from service.
Electric trolley buses were used from to The system was inaugurated six months before the opening of Expo Each Metro station has a different architectural design and artistic decor. Underneath the city, some million square feet 36 million square metres of pedestrian walkways, malls, and shops offer protection from the winter cold and snow.
Directly connected to the subway system, the elaborate underground network ranks as the largest of its kind in the world. Aboveground, for three seasons of the year, the public bicycle share system, BIXI an amalgam of the words bicycle and taxiallows riders to rent a bike and drop it off at a docking station near their destination.
Joe Baugher describes an interesting history: The starboard maingear ran into the ditch and culvert that ran parallel to the runway, seen under the starboard wingtip and tore the main gear attachments off the spar!
I was in Shamattawa for a couple of weeks shortly after the incident to remove engines, propellers, flight controls and equipment from IXZ. After a few months with several different recovery crews sent in, the aircraft was dragged off the airport back into the bush where the hulk is still today.
Bermuda's Aviation History and pioneers
This would be what one of your contributors saw in the bush close to Shamattawa: The aircraft would probably have been repaired, if it was a little more accessible, but economics dictated that the best plan at that time was to scrap it. Once we de-registered the aircraft we thought it would be fun to apply the same registration to a C acquired from the States. That aircraft was the one that ended up in Loki. I think secretly somebody wanted to confuse those British aviation buffs who used to visit our facility and keep them on their toes.
These guys, I think they called themselves "Friends of the DC-3", used to visit about once a year and if they promised to help unload, at the other end they got free rides on Cs and DC-3s! They thought they had died and gone to heaven! Seemed a little odd to us as we worked around these aircraft daily. Whatever feathers your prop, I guess" Seems like a veritable Curtiss Commando scrapyard up there in Manitoba.!
Abandoned Plane Wrecks of the North
Updates and other wreck sightings not restricted to Cs, but rather all vintage propellor transports. This is slightly incorrect. I know this because I flew on this aircraft many times between while working for Nordair on the DEW-line. I have attached some scanned photos taken duringone photo clearly has the call letters while in flight with a DEW-line station in the background.
I was saddened to learn of its demise. I was told it was hauling lumber at night and lost an engine. As you can tell its been there for sometime due to the growth around it At the time it was operated by Ontario Central Airlines.
The crew feathered the propeller but the overloaded aircraft descended into trees and came to a halt in deep snow. When I asked who made these photos, and when, I was replied: The report on Aviation Safety Network states- "Location: The aircraft was on the downwind leg when it struck the ground at feet asl. Hill responded to this may All the windows obviously line up for a similar aircraft type. No guarantees, but something to think about.
CF-IHQ is still there, it is on the opposite side of the lake from the site, while CF-HEI is now in a hole in the ground covered by gravel during the cleanup of the site Hill wrote me may I will also take the opportunity to correct the name of the lake: You have two spellings 'Scapa' and 'Scarpa', but it is in fact 'Sarcpa'. Peter Hill sent me another batch of fine photos dating back to that visit of 05Sep Notice the relative flatness of the Arctic in this area, formerly called Keewatin region.
ASN's database has it as 'The C struck the ground short of the runway with its main wheels. The airplane landed but the starboard landing gear collapsed and the C went off the runway.
Two crew, 7 passengers: I read somewhere that the remains of the C were dumped in a hole and covered with rubble. Peter wrote May This was a charter trip I hopped on that particular day 05Sep I don't recall the exact circumstances of the charter and am a little uncertain about the exact period I worked at Hall Beach.
We also supported lateral flights to several DEW stations, where we swapped crews and brought in freight and mail. It was set up to detect incoming Soviet bombers during the Cold War, and provide early warning of any sea-and-land invasion.
The Curtiss freighter was on a night-time VFR approach to Pelly Bay when the left wing struck rising terrain at feet msl. Hill elaborated on NF's position, with help from Google Earth may Information from the website polarpilots. Bad weather forced it to miss refuelling in Pangnirtung or Broughton Island now Qikiqtarjuaq. It ran out of fuel and landed on the tundra about 45 nm north east of Iqaluit.
The passengers included many of the original Inuit group that worked to develop the idea of Nunavut, which became a territory on April 1, Search and Rescue in Nunavut volunteers use the wreck as a target for spotter training.
The winter photo upper left was taken by Kenn Borek pilot Marcel Siegenthaler during a training run in January The engines have been removed and much of the useful material stripped.
And it now serves as a shelter for hunters, as you can see in this summer photo below taken by Patrick Nagle. Nigel Hitchman wrote in dec.
I came across this photo by Erik Charlton on Flickr. It looks like a Fokker F. But this photo was not taken at Inuvik. The caption mentions "Arctic tundra", and the tags say Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island, which is km from Inuvik. Or was there only one accident, which then obviously did not occur at Inuvik at all? Or does this photo perhaps show a different aircraft?
Registration was cancelled 14Feb He told me the story himself but I forgot the details I do not know the details of the Resolute Bay one, but Danny Bereza in his book 'the Big Dipper Route' describes the Inuvik accident in minute detail, as he was the co-pilot on it