Etymology[ edit ] The area of Vigan was originally a settlement of traders coming from the Fujian Province, China. Vigan's Chinese heritage is still evident from the numerous elite Chinese creole families who come from the area, many of whom adopted Hispanic family names.
Others, such as the Syquia family, have retained Chinese-derived surnames, though most, if not all, of the Christian Chinese creole families fully Hispanicised themselves culturally.
The most commonly known source of the city's name is from the Biga'a plant, which once grew abundantly along the banks of the Mestizo River, from which captain Juan de Salcedo derived the city's name after a misunderstanding with the locals, thinking he was asking the name of the plants.
History[ edit ] Due to silting of the Mestizo River, Vigan City is no longer separated from the mainland, therefore no longer an island. The city is unique in the Philippines because it is one of many extensive surviving Philippine historic cities, dating back to the 16th century.
On board their ships were seafaring merchants who came to trade goods from other Asian kingdoms in exchange for gold, beeswax, and other mountain products brought by the indigenous peoples from the Cordillera region.
In the book The Philippine Island Vol. They arrived in Vigan on June 13, InSalcedo returned to the capital of his encomienda trusteeshipVigan, bringing with him his soldiers and some Augustinian missionaries to pioneer the evangelization of the Ilocos region. He established a Spanish city for the purpose of controlling the neighboring country. The King collects tributes equivalent to 3, subjects. Between andVigan was divided into 21 Cabezas de Barrio Town Mayors as mentioned in the Libro de Casamiento Book of Marriage ; from the records of the parish house of Vigan found in its archives.
During the Philippine Revolutionrevolutionary forces under Manuel Tiniosupported by the Ilocano rebels, attacked and defeated the Spanish colonial forces and captured the city in the Siege of Vigan. James Parker occupied the town in Nov. Incombined U.
Its architecture is the conglomeration of cultural elements from the Philippines, China, and Spain, making it unique in the world. It serves as the capital of Ilocos Sur and has been a major political and trading center since before the Spanish colonizers arrived in the Philippines.
Its favorable geographical features and location continues to make it a very accessible center. Topography[ edit ] Vigan coast Its 2, hectares of land consists mostly of plains with gentle hills. Its boundaries on the north, east, south, and west are the municipalities of BantaySantaCaoayanand Sta.
The South China Sea is on its southwest portion. Majority of its land, 60 percent of it, is used for agriculture. Map of the city in El Paso circa The El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks.
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The evidence suggests 10, to 12, years of human habitation. When the Spanish arrived, the MansoSumaand Jumano tribes populated the area. The Mescalero Apache were also present. Inthe small village of El Paso became the temporary base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico as a result of the Pueblo Revoltuntil when Santa Fe was reconquered and once again became the capital.
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However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico and numerous attempts were made by Texas to bolster these claims.
However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained essentially a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in During this interregnum, —, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region.
Given the reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the U.
The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography. A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande was established in on Coons' Rancho beside the settlement of Franklin, which became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas; After the army left in the rancho went into default and was repossessed; in a post office was established on the Rancho bearing the name El Paso as an example of Cross-border town naming until El Paso del Norte was renamed Juarez in After changing hands twice more the El Paso company was set up in and bought the property, hiring Anson Mills to survey and lay out the town forming the current street plan of downtown El Paso.
El Paso itself, incorporated inencompassed the small area communities that had developed along the river. In the s, a population of 23 non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics was reported. The location of El Paso as well as the arrival of these more wild newcomers caused the city to become a violent and wild boomtown known as the "Six Shooter Capital" because of its lawlessness.
With the suppression of the vice trade and in consideration of the city's geographic position, the city continued into developing as a premier manufacturing, transportation, and retail center of the U. El Paso, Texas postcardca. Franklin Mountains, left-to-right i. Vice-Presidential candidate in Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route.
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However, this period was short lived as the Mexican Revolution greatly impacted the city, bringing an influx of refugees — and capital — to the bustling boom town. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class.
Large numbers of clerics, intellectuals, and businessmen took refuge in the city, particularly between and Ultimately, the violence of the Mexican Revolution followed with the large Mexican diaspora which had fled into El Paso. In and again in and various Mexican revolutionary societies planned, staged, and launched violent attacks against both Texans and their political Mexican opponents in El Paso.
This state of affairs eventually led to the vast Plan de San Diego which resulted in the murder of 21 white citizens. These actions affected almost every resident of the entire lower Rio Grande Valley, resulting in millions of dollars of losses; the end result of the Plan of San Diego was long-standing enmity between the two racial groups.
Army troops, the population exceededand whites once again were in the clear majority. Nonetheless, the city increased the segregation between Mexicans and Mexican-Americans with Americans.
In reply, the Catholic Church attempted to garner the Mexican-American community's allegiance through education and political and civic involvement organizations, including the National Catholic Welfare Fund.