Folk music — Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is applied to music older than that. Some types of music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways, as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers and it has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles.
Starting in the century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music.
This process and period is called the revival and reached a zenith in the s. This form of music is called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times and this type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, electric folk, and others. Even individual songs may be a blend of the two, a consistent definition of traditional folk music is elusive.
The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are comparatively recent expressions and they are extensions of the term folklore, which was coined in by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe the traditions, customs, and superstitions of the uncultured classes. Traditional folk music also includes most indigenous music, however, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what folk music is.
Some do not even agree that the term Folk Music should be used, Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning often given is that of old songs, with no known composers, the fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character.
Such definitions depend upon processes rather than abstract musical types, one widely used definition is simply Folk music is what the people sing.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a schema comprising four types, primitive or tribal, elite or art, folk. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre 2. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia.
Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce, finance and transport hub, the country has also been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index.
There are four languages on the island, Malay, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government.
The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government inhowever, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has also been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay.
InPortuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by then was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. InSingapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese.
By the population had swelled to over 80, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations 3. Singapore National Day Parade — Singapore celebrated its first National Day as an independent nation inone year after Singapores separation from Malaysia on 9 August The first National Day Parade started in the morning at 9,00 a. Singapores first President, Mr Yusof bin Ishak and Singapores first Prime Minister, when the parade began,6 military contingents, a mobile column from the SIR, and various schools and civil contingents marched past City Hall and then into the city streets.
Three military bands accompanied the parade inspection and later the march past with military music, the Singapore Fire Brigade also took part in this first parade with its firetrucks included in the mobile column. Rounding it all was a lion and dragon dance performance from drum. The following year, the contingents increased to 76, including those of the then established Singapore Armed Forces, street performances by various groups also debuted in that years parade.
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A combat simulation performance by Singapore Army personnel was one of the new highlights for that year, the NDP was the first to include the iconic mobile parade floats from various organizations. Choirs also debuted on that years edition, the parade was held from the afternoon to early evening for the first time to attract more attendance from the public. The next year, colour broadcasts of the parade on television began, the parades, held to celebrate Singapores 10th year, were for the first time decentralized into 13 parade venues for more public participation.
Almost all of them lasted for an hour and all of them even had route marches on the streets to the participating venues, s parade was a decentralized event like two years before while would see the parade back at the Padang grounds.
The parade, held at the National Stadium, almost rained at the start and this was the first parade in which the feu de joie of the Guard-of-Honour contingents made its inaugural appearance. The edition was the first true evening edition of the parade, s parade, held at the Padang, was the first ever evening event held there and featured the first appearance of the massed military bands of the SAF.
The parade returned to the Padang in to honor the nations silver jubilee year, infor the first time, there was a National Education Show, where Primary 5 students watch NDP rehearsals.
The government set up the electronic voting ticketing system in in order to tackle the problem of overcrowding, such ticketing system enables citizens to stand a chance at winning the tickets by registering their e-mail addresses or mobile numbers at the NDP website or phonelines 4.
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Vernacular — Some linguists use vernacular and nonstandard dialect as synonyms. The use of vernacular is not recent, here vernacular, mother language and dialect are already in use in a modern sense. The figurative meaning was broadened from the diminutive extended words vernaculus, varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, termes de la langue nationale or vocabulary of the national language as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, for instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, which was serving as a lingua franca.
Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular, the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, and The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian, Spanish, and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c.
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Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass, in India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular.
In science, a user of the vernacular was Galileo. Il testo in inglese, One Note Samba, fu scritto dallo stesso Jobim. Le prime otto battute consistono solo di Re, seguite da quattro battute di Sol, e per finire quattro battute ancora di Re. Da questo punto seguono quattro battute con una melodia molto variata. Reincisioni degne di nota fra le tantissime sono quelle di: Nelnaque la sua unica sorella, Helena, divenuta scrittrice e giornalista.
Dopo alcune esperienze nelle sedi diplomatiche brasiliane, decise di ritornare stabilmente in patria e divenne prima professore di diritto e poi funzionario del ministero dell'educazione. Non poteva restare a lungo fuori dal suo paese: Il padre adottivo era un socialista e agnostico, molto diverso da Jorge; fu lui, insieme a uno zio materno, a indurre Tom a coltivare il proprio talento musicale.
Erano la ricerca di soluzioni armoniche originali che gli interessavano innanzitutto. Decise che la sua vita sarebbe stata la musica. La seconda figlia della coppia, Elisabeth, nacque nel Furono i suoi primi lavori da professionista. I suoi primi lavori importanti furono come arrangiatore. Jobim stravolgeva i pezzi, non solo li arrangiava, li riempiva di accordi che nessuno era in grado di capire e di suonare.
Pochi mesi dopo uscirono altri dischi con sue canzoni: Il fu l'anno decisivo per la carriera di Jobim. Alla fine del era considerato uno dei migliori arrangiatori e compostori del paese preceduto solo dal mostro sacro Pixinguinha.
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Alla proposta del grande poeta, Jobim chiese: Tom, hai di fronte il poeta Vinicius de Moraes! Ne nacque una amicizia e una collaborazione che fece la storia della musica brasiliana. Jobim e Vinicius si rinchiusero in un appartamento di Rio e iniziarono a lavorare sull'Orfeo, la versione carioca del mito classico. La carriera di Jobim come compositore ebbe un nuovo impulso. Jobim rimase parecchio indispettito: Ma Vinicius era amico del produttore e quindi, alla fine, Jobim si sottomise alla richiesta.
In pochi giorni, al telefono Vinicius si trovava in quel periodo a Montevideo in missione diplomaticavennero composte alcune nuove canzoni: A felicidade, Frevo e O nosso amor.
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Ci fu un po' di scarica barile su chi avrebbe scritto i testi: Il primo non era un cantante e la seconda era americana: Il film Orfeu Negro o Orfeu do carnavalfu realizzato nel e vinse la Palma d'Oro a Cannes e l'Oscar come miglior film straniero nel Mancava solo il tocco finale: Uno era Outra vez, del solo Jobim, l'altro era Chega de saudade.
Le altre tracce del disco sono tutte canzoni melodiche, al limite del melodramma, con un solenne accompagnamento d'archi. Mai Outra vez e, soprattutto, Chega de saudade, erano qualcosa di nuovo. In primo luogo erano su ritmo samba, ma soprattutto avevano una cadenza innovativa e che, all'epoca, fece scalpore. La bossa nova era nata e, da quel momento, tutti in Brasile, cercando di copiare la batida di Gilberto, iniziarono a suonarla.